THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH 5

PERSONAL (CENTRAL) PRONOUNS 7

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS 27

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 30

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 36

INTERROGATIVE/RELATIVE PRONOUNS 72

Введение

Практическое пособие по грамматике английского языка предназначено для студентов I курса специальности 1 – 02 03 06 – 01 – “Английский язык” при изучении темы: “Местоимения в современном английском языке”. Пособие разделено на несколько частей по разделам местоимений соответственно, содержит глубокое и подробное описание необходимого грамматического материала по теме, то есть описание случаев употребления местоимений, и серию упражнений для закрепления.

Практическое пособие ставит своей целью обучение грамматическим навыкам устной речи; адресовано как для работы на занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.

Все упражнения имеют коммуникативную направленность, сгруппированы по THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH принципу «от простого к сложному». При составлении данного пособия авторы широко использовали литературу по теме, изданную в последние годы в СНГ и за рубежом.

THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH

1.1. INTRODUCTION

The status of the pronoun in the system of the parts of speech is a special one because some of the pronouns share the essential properties of nouns (e.g. someone), while others have much in common with adjectives (e.g. this).

The meaningof pronouns is general and undetermined; their semantic interpretation depends on context. Pronouns point to things without naming them. This property is described as indication. Indication is THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH considered to be the semantic foundation of another basic feature of pronouns: substitution. As substitutes, pronouns act as syntactic representatives of other parts of speech, taking on their meaning in context.

In terms of form,pronouns fall into different types. Some of them are variable in form (e.g. one – one's – ones), and others are invariable (e.g. something, which). Variable pronouns express a number of grammatical categories. Some pronouns have the category of number, singular and plural (e.g. this – these), while others do not (e.g. somebody): some have the category of case (e THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH.g. she – her, everybody – everybody's), while others have none.

In terms of their word–building structure, pronouns can have a b a s e form consisting of a plain stem (e.g. I. either, any, etc.) or a d e r i v a t i o n a l form, consisting of a stem and an affix (e.g. theirs). Two pronouns have a composite structure (each other, one another). There are also compound pronouns, formed by putting together two stems (e.g. everyone, something, etc.).

Many pronouns functionboth as determiners modifying a noun (This dog is mine THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH; Which dog is yours?) and as pronouns proper, or substantives, without any noun (This is my dog; Which of the dogs is yours?). Others can be determiners only (Every medal has two sides) or substantives only (He is at home).

There exist various classifications of pronouns. In the present outline, pronouns will be treated under the following headings.

Personal, or centralpronouns, with the subgroups of:

a) personal pronouns proper (I, you, he, she, it, we, they),

b) possessive pronouns (my, your, his, her, its, our, their; mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs),

c) reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself THE PRONOUN AS A PART OF SPEECH, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves);

Demonstrativepronouns ( this, that, these, those);

Indefinitepronouns, with the subgroups of:

a) indefinite pronouns proper(some, any, no; somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, anyone, no one, none, something, anything, nothing; one),

b) distributive pronouns (all, every, each, other, another, either, neither, both; everybody, everyone, everything),

Reciprocalpronouns (each other, one another),

Interrogativepronouns, which also function as relativewords introducing phrases and clauses (who, whose, what, which).


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